AI is a broader subject, while machine learning and deep learning are specializations.
What is Artificial Intelligence or A.I.?
Artificial Intelligence is the theory and development of computer systems that enable the performance of tasks normally requiring human intelligence such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making or even translation between languages. Coined in the year 1956, AI is more prevalent today than it ever was, due to the wide availability of high speed computing power. Processing speeds have improved to a point where quantum computing is a reality.
AI has many uses. Apple’s Siri is an example of artificial intelligence helping humans schedule meetings, and perform simple tasks like playing music. AI also has many uses in business. For example, it can be used to process automation, automated customer support or even something as simple as spam filters. Companies like Tesla are using AI for their self-driving cars. Therefore, AI is a very exciting field for companies as well as their customers.
What is Machine Learning?
Machine learning is the scientific study of algorithms and statistical models that computer systems use in order to perform a specific task effectively relying on patterns and inference. Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence. If machines can be taught to automate tasks and replicate human behavior, they can also be taught to spot patterns in data similar to how a human would be able to.
Statistics is often used to train large complex models. Machine learning is used in heavy manufacturing production plants to reduce defects in produced goods. The system is enabled to learn from previous mistakes and identify areas in the manufacturing process that are deteriorating or causing mishaps. The repair and maintenance teams are then fed these reports to help fix the machinery so that production doesn’t stall.
What is Deep Learning?
Deep learning is a form of machine learning that is based on artificial neural networks. Here the learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised. This is where we are on the fringes of science fiction. Jeff Dean, the current lead of Google AI said, “When you hear the term deep learning, just think of a large deep neural net. Deep refers to the number of layers typically and so this is kind of the popular term that’s been adopted in the press. I think of them as deep neural networks generally.”
A neural net, in this case, refers to an artificial neural network or a connectionist system inspired by biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. The idea is that the system will learn to perform tasks by considering examples without being programmed with any task-specific rules. With brain simulations and huge amounts of data, deep learning researchers are able to develop better algorithms and gain newer insights.
Deep learning has some amazing applications in healthcare, voice search, voice-activated assistants, image recognition, advertising, disaster prediction, and energy or power usage and management. In short, deep learning is a very specific specialization of machine learning.